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Oct 15

Delay Dementia – Medication Causes of Dementia

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Dementia
About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability that is severe enough to interfere with people’s every life and Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people. American typical diet contains high amount of saturated and trans fat, artificial ingredients with less fruits and vegetable which can lead to dementia and other kind of diseases

I. Causes of Dementia
A. Medication Causes of Dementia
As aging, accumulation of toxins of certain medication used to treat certain diseases, such as antidepressants, sedatives, cardiovascular drugs and anti-anxiety medications may cause increased risk of cognitive dysfunction leading to produced dementia-like symptoms.(1)
1. Antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines
An Antidepressants is a psychiatric medication used to treat mood disorders, such as major depression and dysthymia and anxiety disorders. In a study conducted by Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center of total of 230 participants were followed for a mean of 3.7 years. Persistency index (PI) was calculated for all antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), antipsychotics (atypical and typical), and benzodiazepines as the proportion of observed time of medication exposure, found that Psychotropic medication use was associated with more rapid cognitive and functional decline in AD, and not with improved NPS. Clinicians may tend to prescribe psychotropic medications to AD patients at risk of poorer outcomes, but one cannot rule out the possibility of poorer outcomes being caused by psychotropic medications(2)

2. Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Lower risks for AD and all-cause dementia were significantly associated with the use of any NSAIDs and the salicylates without barbiturates subgroup in the study sample including subjects with CIND at baseline. There was a weak association between any NSAIDs and the risk of CIND (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.00)(3)

3. Cannabis
Cannabis has been used for the treatment of a number of conditions, including neuropathic pain, treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, and chemotherapy-induced nausea, etc,. In the study conducted by University of Western Australia showed that he chronic use of cannabis may impair intellectual abilities but data on this topic remain sparse and difficult to interpret. In conclusion, there is evidence that some drugs contribute to the causal pathway that leads to the development of cognitive impairment but currently available data do not support the introduction of a separate diagnostic category of drug-induced dementia (such as alcohol-related dementia)(4).

4. Hallucinogens
Hallucinogens are psychedelic drugs, used primary action is to alter cognition and perception, leading to distortion of sensory perception, and other psychic and somatic effects, including sweating, heart palpitations, blurring of vision, memory loss, trembling, and itching(5)

5. Others
a. Corticosteroids
Corticosteroids are synthetic drugs that closely resemble cortisol, a steroid hormones produced by the adrenal glands to assist the physiologic processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, behavior, etc. but an excess can cause agitation and even actual psychoses. In the study to evaluate the effects of anti-inflammatory intake on cognitive function in 7234 community-dwelling elderly persons, showed that the association may be related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal corticotropic axis dysfunctioning rather than a direct anti-inflammatory mechanism. Long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids may constitute a form of reversible cognitive disorder in elderly women. Physicians should check this possibility before assuming neurodegenerative changes(6).

b. Anticholinergic drugs
Researchers at the Université Montpellier 1, in the studyof 4128 women and 2784 men 65 years or older from a population-based cohort recruited from 3 French cities. Cognitive performance, clinical diagnosis of dementia, and anticholinergic use were evaluated at baseline and 2 and 4 years later, suggested that Elderly people taking anticholinergic drugs were at increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia. Discontinuing anticholinergic treatment was associated with a decreased risk. Physicians should carefully consider prescription of anticholinergic drugs in elderly people, especially in the very elderly and in persons at high genetic risk for cognitive disorder(7)

c. Fluoroquinolone
Fluoroquinolone antibioticsare are medication taken to treat a variety of infections and found to be associated with delirium in elderly patients. “There are three cases of rare side effects which appeared to be attributable to antibacterial drug treatment” said Dr. Fux R and the team at Universitätsklinikum Tübingen and ” A 20-year-old male patient presented with most intense headache and psychomotor deceleration. Pseudotumor cerebri, which was suspected to be the underlying cause, is described as a rare side effect of minocyclin which the patient has taken for acne pustulosa (100 mg single dose). After dechallenge of minocyclin, neurological symptoms quickly subsided. A 82-year-old female patient used moxifloxacin (400 mg/d) for febrile bronchopulmonary infection for one week. During this therapy, confusion and severe dementia presented and remained for more than two months after discontinuation. The demential syndrome appears to be possibly related to the fluoroquinolone use. In summary, adverse drug effects not pertaining to the primary physician’s field are especially difficult to identify. Most importantly, rare side effects must be borne in mind by the prescribing physician(8).

d. Histamine-2 receptor antagonist
Histamine-2 receptor antagonist are medicines taken to reduce the amount of acid the stomach by blocking one important producer of histamine2 and might be a risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment in African Americans(9), but in the study of to examine whether histamine-2 receptor antagonist medications (H2RAs) are associated with a lower incidence of all-cause dementia or Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as some studies have suggested, showed that no association was found between H2RA use and risk of all-cause dementia or AD using more-detailed and -extensive information about past H2RA use than any prior study(10).

e. Etc.

Alzheimer’s Disease – My Story
This Is A Real Case Study, Written By An Alzheimer’s Sufferer
Sharing His Hurts, Frustration And Desperation.

For the series of Delay Dementia, visit http://healthyliving50over.blogspot.ca/p/delay-dementia.html

For Other Health articles visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com/

Sources
(1) http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5510964_prescription-drugs-cause-dementia.html
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22374884
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22546354
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16240487
(5) http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/1880
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22071123
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19636034
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19097002
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17661965
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21314645



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